Sanskrit (originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, "refined speech"), is a historical Indo-Aryan language, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a literary and scholarly language in Jainism and Buddhism. Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand. Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.
SanskritLanguages written in DevanagariSanskritClassical languages of IndiaAncient languagesIndo-Aryan languagesSubject–object–verb languages
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Puducherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and declared a classical language by the government of India in 2004.
Tamil languageLanguages spoken in KeralaLanguages of Sri LankaAgglutinative languagesLanguages of IndiaTamil languageClassical languages of IndiaSubject–object–verb languagesIndian languages in SingaporeLanguages used in Tamil NaduDravidian languages
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. It should not be confused with the Classical Era.
Classical musicClassical musicEuropean music
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership.
Ancient GreeceAncient Greece
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece and are part of religion in modern Greece and around the world as Hellenismos.
Greek mythologyCreation mythsGreek mythology
Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th – 6th centuries BC,, c. 5th – 4th centuries BC, and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek. The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common) or Biblical Greek, the language from the late period onward has no considerable difference from Medieval Greek.
Ancient GreekAncient languagesAncient GreeceAncient Greek languageVarieties of Greek
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
Neoclassical architectureClassical Revival architectureRevival architectural stylesNeoclassical architecture
Ballet is a type of performance dance, that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century, and which was further developed in France and Russia as a concert dance form. The early portions preceded the invention of the proscenium stage and were presented in large chambers with most of the audience seated on tiers or galleries on three sides of the dance floor. It has since become a highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary.
BalletBalletFrench loanwordsGreek loanwords
A gymnasium (in several languages) is a type of school providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools.
Gymnasium (school)Gymnasiums (school)School types
Neoclassicism (from Greek "neos"-νέος, Latin "classicus" and Greek "ismos"-ισμός) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, latterly competing with Romanticism.
NeoclassicismNeoclassical architectureDecorative artsArt movementsAge of EnlightenmentNeoclassicism
Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe.
Classical antiquityGreco-Roman worldClassical antiquityMediterranean
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora. It has its own script, the Armenian alphabet, and is of interest to linguists for its distinctive phonological developments within Indo-European.
Armenian languageLanguages of LebanonLanguages of ArmeniaLanguages of AzerbaijanAgglutinative languagesLanguages of Georgia (country)Ancient languagesLanguages of RussiaArmenian languagesSubject–object–verb languagesLanguages of the CaucasusLanguages of TurkeyArmenian language
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ leššānā Suryāyā) is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. Having first appeared as a script in the 1st century AD after being spoken as an unwritten language for five centuries, Classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries, the classical language of Edessa, preserved in a large body of Syriac literature.
Syriac languageLanguages of LebanonLanguages of IraqClassical languagesLiturgical languagesLanguages of SyriaFertile CrescentAramaic languages
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) refers to a broad range of medicine practices sharing common theoretical concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than 2,000 years, including various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (Tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy.
Traditional Chinese medicinePharmacyTraditional Chinese medicineWhole medical systemsAlternative medical systemsChinese thought
Carnatic music is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. It is one of two main sub-genres of Indian classical music that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions; the other sub-genre being Hindustani music, which emerged as a distinct form because of Persian and Islamic influences in North India.
Carnatic musicIndian styles of musicSouth IndiaCarnatic music
Civilization is a sometimes controversial term that has been used in several related ways. Primarily, the term has been used to refer to the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such civilizations are generally hierarchical and urbanized.
CivilizationSocietyCultural historyAnthropological categories of peoplesCultural anthropologyCultural geographySociocultural evolutionCultureTheories of historyCivilizations
A supernova (abbreviated SN, plural SNe after supernovae) is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. It is pronounced /ˌsuːpərˈnoʊvə/ with the plural supernovae /ˌsuːpərˈnoʊviː/ or supernovas. Supernovae are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months.
SupernovaSupernovaeLight sourcesStellar evolutionStellar phenomenaSpace plasmasStandard candles
"Ancient" redirects here. For other uses, see Antiquity (disambiguation). The times before writing belong either to protohistory or to prehistory.
Ancient historyAncient history
Mac OS is a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer, Inc. ) for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The original form of what Apple would later name the "Mac OS" was the integral and unnamed system software first introduced in 1984 with the original Macintosh, usually referred to simply as the System software.
Mac OSApple Inc. operating systemsMac OS developmentMac OS
In physics, an electric field is the region of space surrounding electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding. The concept of an electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday.
Electric fieldIntroductory physicsElectromagnetismPhysical quantitiesElectrostatics
Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilization.
TragedyAncient Greek theatreTragedyDrama genresLiterary genresHistory of theatreTheatrical genresHumanities
Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts. As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post–World War II Western Art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s.
MinimalismModernismAbstract artArt movementsModern artMusic genresContemporary artMusical techniquesWestern art
Contemporary classical music
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s with the retreat of modernism. However, the term may also be employed in a broader sense to refer to all post-1945 modern musical forms.
Contemporary classical musicContemporary classical music
Electromagnetism is the branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles. In electromagnetic theory these forces are explained using electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature, the other three being the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation.
Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is an all-encompassing designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian nor Gothic but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.
Renaissance Revival architectureRenaissance Revival architectureRevival architectural stylesArchitectural stylesVictorian architectural styles
École des Beaux-Arts
École des Beaux-Arts
Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP. Growth is usually calculated in real terms, i.e. inflation-adjusted terms, in order to net out the effect of inflation on the price of the goods and services produced. In economics, "economic growth" or "economic growth theory" typically refers to growth of potential output, i.e.
Economic growthEconomic growthEconomics terminologyEconomic indicatorsWelfare economicsMacroeconomics
For the city in the late Roman and the Eastern Roman or Byzantine periods (330–1453), see Constantinople. For the Ottoman and modern city (after 1453), see Istanbul. For the empire, see Byzantine Empire. Byzantium was an ancient Greek city, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC and named after their king Byzas . The name Byzantium is a Latinization of the original name Byzantion.
ByzantiumGreek city-statesPopulated places established in the 7th century BCAncient Byzantium667 BC establishmentsAncient Greece
Koine Greek (Greek: Ελληνιστική Κοινή "Hellenistic common ", or ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, "the common dialect", also simply called koine "common ", or "Alexandrian dialect", "common Attic" or "Hellenistic Greek") is the universal dialect of the Greek language spoken throughout post-Classical antiquity (c. 300 BC – AD 300), developing from the Attic dialect, with admixture of elements especially from Ionic.
Koine GreekLanguages of ancient MacedoniaKoine GreekOffshoots of the Macedonian EmpireAncient languagesLiturgical languagesStandard languagesHellenistic civilization
A raga (Sanskrit rāga राग, Tamil rāgam ராகம், Kannada "Raaga" ರಾಗ, Malayalam rāgam രാഗം literally "colour, hue" but also "beauty, melody"; also spelled raag, raaga, ragam) is one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. A raga uses a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is constructed.
RagaRagasHindustani musicModesCarnatic music
Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture.
Renaissance architectureArchitectural historyItalian architectureRenaissance architecture
Calculus (Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus.
In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau. It existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Byzantine empire. Cilicia extends inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus.
CiliciaHistorical regions of AnatoliaAdana Province546 BC disestablishmentsAncient Roman provincesAncient Greek geographyStates and territories established in the 16th century BCPtolemaic KingdomAnatoliaSeleucid EmpireCilicia
The classical guitar (also called classic guitar, Spanish guitar, nylon-string guitar or concert guitar) is a 6-stringed plucked string instrument from the family of instruments called chordophones. The classical guitar is well known for its comprehensive right hand technique, which allows the soloist to perform complex melodic and polyphonic material, in much the same manner as the piano.
Classical guitarAcoustic guitarsClassical guitarString instruments
In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers.
Computer keyboardVideo game control methodsComputer keyboardsComputing input devicesFlexible electronics
Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in Nevşehir Province. In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine. Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia, to the east by the upper Euphrates and the Armenian Highland, to the north by Pontus, and to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia.
CappadociaUnderground citiesNevşehirWorld Heritage Sites in TurkeyPlaces illustrated on Turkish banknotesAncient Roman provincesArticles containing video clipsCappadocia
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or – as here – simply a vector) is a geometric object that has a magnitude and direction and can be added according to the parallelogram law of addition.
Euclidean vectorVector calculusLinear algebraVectorsAbstract algebraFundamental physics conceptsIntroductory physics
Set theory is the branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects. Although any type of object can be collected into a set, set theory is applied most often to objects that are relevant to mathematics. The language of set theory can be used in the definitions of nearly all mathematical objects. The modern study of set theory was initiated by Georg Cantor and Richard Dedekind in the 1870s.
Set theorySet theoryFormal methodsMathematical logic
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (3500–2000), the Preclassic (2000 BCE–200 CE), the Classic (200 CE–1000CE), and the Postclassic (1000 CE–1697 CE).
Mesoamerican chronologyArchaeology timelinesTimelines of North American historyHistory of MesoamericaMesoamerica
Homeopathy Listen/ˌhoʊmiˈɒpəθi/ (also spelled homoeopathy or homœopathy; from the Greek hómoios- ὅμοιος- "like-" + páthos πάθος "suffering") is a form of alternative medicine. Practitioners treat patients using highly diluted preparations believed to cause symptoms in healthy individuals similar to the undesired symptoms of the person treated. Scientific evidence has found homeopathy no more effective than placebos.
HomeopathyObsolete medical theoriesWhole medical systemsHomeopathyAlternative medical systemsPseudoscience
In education in the United States, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across the normal boundaries defined by authorities as school zones that feed into certain schools. There are magnet schools at the elementary school, middle school, and high school levels.
Magnet schoolPublic education in the United StatesSchool typesMagnet schools
World Chess Championship
The World Chess Championship is played to determine the World Champion in the board game chess. Men and women of any age are eligible to contest this title. The official world championship is generally regarded to have begun in 1886, when the two leading players in Europe and United States, Wilhelm Steinitz and Johann Zukertort, played a match.
World Chess ChampionshipHistory of chessChess world championshipsRecurring sporting events established in 1886
An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct (a long bridge) may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today.
Arch bridgeDeck arch bridgesBridgesArch bridges
Mechanics is the branch of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. The discipline has its roots in several ancient civilizations. During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and especially Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics.
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are simply objecting to the classicism of classic art.
ClassicismClassicismArt movementsTheories of aesthetics
Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect which is popularly referred to as the butterfly effect.
Chaos theoryChaos theory
Romantic music is a term describing a style of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It was related to and in Germany dominated Romanticism, the artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century in Europe.
Romantic musicRomanticismRomantic music19th century in musicRomantic composers
Classical liberalism is the philosophy committed to the ideal of limited government, constitutionalism, rule of law, due process, and liberty of individuals including freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and free markets. Classical liberalism developed in the 19th century in Europe and the United States.
Classical liberalismClassical liberalismPolitical economyLibertarianism by formPolitical philosophyPolitical ideologiesLiberalismEconomic liberalismPolitical culture
Theory of relativity
The theory of relativity, or simply relativity, encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. The basic overall concept is that both time and space are relative, not fixed. However, the word relativity is sometimes used in reference to Galilean invariance. The term "theory of relativity" was based on the expression "relative theory" used by Max Planck in 1906, who emphasized how the theory uses the principle of relativity.
Theory of relativityTheory of relativity
In physics, classical mechanics is one of the two major sub-fields of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the action of a system of forces. The study of the motion of bodies is an ancient one, making classical mechanics one of the oldest and largest subjects in science, engineering and technology.
Classical mechanicsFundamental physics conceptsClassical mechanics
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